Most Important Life Events of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
1869 October 2: Birth of Gandhi at Porbandar, District Khathiawar, India. Father Karamchand and mother Putlibai.
1883: He married Srimathi Kasturibai.
1888: Went to England to study law.
1891: Returned to India from England and started Law practice in Bombay and Rajkot.
1893 April: Left to South Africa to work as lawyer for an Indian firm. Experienced the color discrimination
1894 May: Organized Natal congress in South Africa.
1899: Started Indian Ambulance Corps for the British in the Boer war.
1901: Returned to India with family.
1901-1902: Under took extensive tour in India , attended to meetings of Indian National Congress meeting in Kolkata, opened Law office in Mumbai.
1902: Left to South Africa second time at the request of the Indians there.
1904: Started a weekly journal ‘Indian Opinion’ and established a phoenix farm at Durban.
1906 September: Started the first ‘Satyagraha’ campaign in Transvaal in protest against the proposed Asiatic Ordinance on Indian immigrants.
1907 June: Organized Satyagraha in protest against compulsory registration of Asiatics.
1908 January: Arrested and jailed for two months in Johannesburg for organizing Satyagraha and later released from jail after compromising.
1908 February: Attacked and wounded by an Indian Extremist for settlement with Smuts.
1908 August: Second Satyagraha campaign started consequent to breaking of the agreement by smuts with all authorization papers.
1909 February: Sentenced for three months jail in Vol Ksrust and Pretoria jails.
1909 June: Travelled to England to present the case of Indians.
1910 May:Started a Tolstoy farm near Johannesburg.
1913 September: participated in a campaign against cancellation of marriages not performed according to Christian rites.
1913 November/December: Arrested third time and released conditionally in December.
1914 July: Returned to India finally from Africa and not to go back again.
1915 May: Started Satyagraha Ashram at Ahmedabad.
1917: Moved Ashram to Sabarmathi. Led a Satyagraha movement to fight for the rights of the Indigo Plantation farmers in Champaran- Arrested and released.
1918 February: organized a strike with mill workers at Ahmadabad. Finally the mill owners agreed to the demands after his 3 day fast. This was his first fast in India.
1918 March: Observed Satyagraha for peasants in Kedah.
1918 April: A hartal was organized nationwide against Rowlatt bill fasted for three days at Sabarmathi. Became editor of a English weekly ‘Young India’ and Gujarati weekly ‘Navajeevan’.
1920 April: Became president of ‘All India Home rule League’. Passed a resolution for a Satyagraha of non-cooperation.
1921: Gandhi determined to wear only loin cloth for his identification with the people and to popularize Khaddar (Home spun cloth).Several went to jail. Gandhi invested as ‘Sole executive authority’ on behalf of the Indian Congress.
1922: Undertook five day fast at Bardoli. Arrested at Sabarmathi for on charges of sedition for articles in ‘Young India’ and sentenced for six years jail in Yeravada.
1929: Arrested for burning the foreign cloth in Calcutta and fined one rupee. National Congress voted for complete independence and to boycott Legislature and Proposed January 26 as Independence Day. Started third All India Satyagraha campaign.
1930: Gandhi led a campaign with 79 volunteers from Sabarmathi to Dandi 200 miles on April 6 i.e. ‘Salt March’ to broke the salt law to pick up a hand full of salt at the sea shore. Arrested and imprisoned in Yeravada jail without many trial. Thousands of people also were arrested.
1931 January: Released from the jail without any conditions along with thirty other Congress leaders.
1931 March: Gandhi- Irwin pact signed for ending civil disobedience.
1931 August: Gandhi attended second round table conference at London
1931 December: Returned to India, National congress decided to organize Satyagraha nationwide for the fourth time.
1932 January: Gandhi was arrested along with Sardar Patel at Bombay and kept in Yeravada jail without any trial.
1932 September 20: Gandhi started fast unto death in prison in protest against the separate electorate for untouchables.
1932 September 26: British accepted Yeravada pact and Gandhi concluded the fast in the presence of Shri Rabindranath Tagore.
1933: Started a weekly magazine ‘Harijan’ in the place of Young India.
1933 July: Sabarmathi Ashram became a center for untouchables for removal of untouchability.
1933 November: Gandhi started a tour in India to popularize end of untouchability.
1934 October: All India village industries Association was launched.
1940 October: Civil disobedience campaign was launched against British refusal to express their opinion on World War II. Several thousands of people were arrested.
1942: National Congress passed “Quit India” resolution, Started Nationwide Satyagraha movement making Gandhi as leader. Gandhi, Kasturibai along with several congress leaders were arrested and imprisoned in Aga Khan Palace. Revolts took place at several places.
1943 February 10: Gandhi took fast in Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock between Viceroy and the Indian leaders.
1944 February 22: Mrs. Kasturibai died in Aga Khan Palace at the age of 74.
1944 May 6: Due to deterioration of health Gandhi was released from Jail unconditionally (Gandhi spent a total of 2338 days in jail during his life time).
1946: Started a tour of 49 villages in East Bengal stop communal rioting on Muslim representation in provincial Government.
1947: Toured Bihar to pacify the tensions between Hindus and Muslims and held conference with Lord Mountbatten and Jinnah.
1947 May: opposed Congress decision for division into India and Pakistan. Several riots took place in Calcutta. Gandhi Fasted for it. Muslim riots took place at several places in India. Ultimately India was partitioned and Independence was declared by the British.
1948: Gandhi undertook fast for five days to bring communal harmony. On January 30 during a prayer meeting at the Birla house Gandhiji was shot dead by a Hindu fanatic Nathuram Vinayak Godse who opposed strongly Hindu- Muslim unity.
The life of a great leader Mahatma Gandhi ended in a tragic circumstance. The whole world mourned for his death. Let us remember and follow his noble path.